Efficient Personalized Federated Learning via Sparse Model-Adaptation
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:5234-5256, 2023.
Federated Learning (FL) aims to train machine learning models for multiple clients without sharing their own private data. Due to the heterogeneity of clients’ local data distribution, recent studies explore the personalized FL that learns and deploys distinct local models with the help of auxiliary global models. However, the clients can be heterogeneous in terms of not only local data distribution, but also their computation and communication resources. The capacity and efficiency of personalized models are restricted by the lowest-resource clients, leading to sub-optimal performance and limited practicality of personalized FL. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel approach named pFedGate for efficient personalized FL by adaptively and efficiently learning sparse local models. With a lightweight trainable gating layer, pFedGate enables clients to reach their full potential in model capacity by generating different sparse models accounting for both the heterogeneous data distributions and resource constraints. Meanwhile, the computation and communication efficiency are both improved thanks to the adaptability between the model sparsity and clients’ resources. Further, we theoretically show that the proposed pFedGate has superior complexity with guaranteed convergence and generalization error. Extensive experiments show that pFedGate achieves superior global accuracy, individual accuracy and efficiency simultaneously over state-of-the-art methods. We also demonstrate that pFedGate performs better than competitors in the novel clients participation and partial clients participation scenarios, and can learn meaningful sparse local models adapted to different data distributions.