Score Approximation, Estimation and Distribution Recovery of Diffusion Models on Low-Dimensional Data
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:4672-4712, 2023.
Diffusion models achieve state-of-the-art performance in various generation tasks. However, their theoretical foundations fall far behind. This paper studies score approximation, estimation, and distribution recovery of diffusion models, when data are supported on an unknown low-dimensional linear subspace. Our result provides sample complexity bounds for distribution estimation using diffusion models. We show that with a properly chosen neural network architecture, the score function can be both accurately approximated and efficiently estimated. Further, the generated distribution based on the estimated score function captures the data geometric structures and converges to a close vicinity of the data distribution. The convergence rate depends on subspace dimension, implying that diffusion models can circumvent the curse of data ambient dimensionality.