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# HarsanyiNet: Computing Accurate Shapley Values in a Single Forward Propagation

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:4804-4825, 2023.

#### Abstract

The Shapley value is widely regarded as a trustworthy attribution metric. However, when people use Shapley values to explain the attribution of input variables of a deep neural network (DNN), it usually requires a very high computational cost to approximate relatively accurate Shapley values in real-world applications. Therefore, we propose a novel network architecture, the HarsanyiNet, which makes inferences on the input sample and simultaneously computes the exact Shapley values of the input variables in a single forward propagation. The HarsanyiNet is designed on the theoretical foundation that the Shapley value can be reformulated as the redistribution of Harsanyi interactions encoded by the network.