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# Efficient Graph Field Integrators Meet Point Clouds

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:5978-6004, 2023.

#### Abstract

We present two new classes of algorithms for efficient field integration on graphs encoding point cloud data. The first class, $\mathrm{SeparatorFactorization}$ (SF), leverages the bounded genus of point cloud mesh graphs, while the second class, $\mathrm{RFDiffusion}$ (RFD), uses popular $\epsilon$-nearest-neighbor graph representations for point clouds. Both can be viewed as providing the functionality of Fast Multipole Methods (FMMs), which have had a tremendous impact on efficient integration, but for non-Euclidean spaces. We focus on geometries induced by distributions of walk lengths between points (e.g. shortest-path distance). We provide an extensive theoretical analysis of our algorithms, obtaining new results in structural graph theory as a byproduct. We also perform exhaustive empirical evaluation, including on-surface interpolation for rigid and deformable objects (in particular for mesh-dynamics modeling) as well as Wasserstein distance computations for point clouds, including the Gromov-Wasserstein variant.