NeRFool: Uncovering the Vulnerability of Generalizable Neural Radiance Fields against Adversarial Perturbations
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:10482-10493, 2023.
Generalizable Neural Radiance Fields (GNeRF) are one of the most promising real-world solutions for novel view synthesis, thanks to their cross-scene generalization capability and thus the possibility of instant rendering on new scenes. While adversarial robustness is essential for real-world applications, little study has been devoted to understanding its implication on GNeRF. We hypothesize that because GNeRF is implemented by conditioning on the source views from new scenes, which are often acquired from the Internet or third-party providers, there are potential new security concerns regarding its real-world applications. Meanwhile, existing understanding and solutions for neural networks’ adversarial robustness may not be applicable to GNeRF, due to its 3D nature and uniquely diverse operations. To this end, we present NeRFool, which to the best of our knowledge is the first work that sets out to understand the adversarial robustness of GNeRF. Specifically, NeRFool unveils the vulnerability patterns and important insights regarding GNeRF’s adversarial robustness. Built upon the above insights gained from NeRFool, we further develop NeRFool$^+$, which integrates two techniques capable of effectively attacking GNeRF across a wide range of target views, and provide guidelines for defending against our proposed attacks. We believe that our NeRFool/NeRFool$^+$ lays the initial foundation for future innovations in developing robust real-world GNeRF solutions. Our codes are available at: https://github.com/GATECH-EIC/NeRFool.