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# The Statistical Scope of Multicalibration

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:26283-26310, 2023.

#### Abstract

We make a connection between multicalibration and property elicitation and show that (under mild technical conditions) it is possible to produce a multicalibrated predictor for a continuous scalar property $\Gamma$ if and only if $\Gamma$ is

*elicitable*. On the negative side, we show that for non-elicitable continuous properties there exist simple data distributions on which even the true distributional predictor is not calibrated. On the positive side, for elicitable $\Gamma$, we give simple canonical algorithms for the batch and the online adversarial setting, that learn a $\Gamma$-multicalibrated predictor. This generalizes past work on multicalibrated means and quantiles, and in fact strengthens existing online quantile multicalibration results. To further counter-weigh our negative result, we show that if a property $\Gamma^1$ is not elicitable by itself, but*is*elicitable*conditionally*on another elicitable property $\Gamma^0$, then there is a canonical algorithm that*jointly*multicalibrates $\Gamma^1$ and $\Gamma^0$; this generalizes past work on mean-moment multicalibration. Finally, as applications of our theory, we provide novel algorithmic and impossibility results for fair (multicalibrated) risk assessment.