Cross-Modal Fine-Tuning: Align then Refine
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:31030-31056, 2023.
Fine-tuning large-scale pretrained models has led to tremendous progress in well-studied modalities such as vision and NLP. However, similar gains have not been observed in many other modalities due to a lack of relevant pretrained models. In this work, we propose ORCA, a general cross-modal fine-tuning framework that extends the applicability of a single large-scale pretrained model to diverse modalities. ORCA adapts to a target task via an align-then-refine workflow: given the target input, ORCA first learns an embedding network that aligns the embedded feature distribution with the pretraining modality. The pretrained model is then fine-tuned on the embedded data to exploit the knowledge shared across modalities. Through extensive experiments, we show that ORCA obtains state-of-the-art results on 3 benchmarks containing over 60 datasets from 12 modalities, outperforming a wide range of hand-designed, AutoML, general-purpose, and task-specific cross-modal methods. We highlight the importance of data alignment via a series of ablation studies and exemplify ORCA’s utility in data-limited regimes.