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# Defects of Convolutional Decoder Networks in Frequency Representation

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:33758-33791, 2023.

#### Abstract

In this paper, we prove the representation defects of a cascaded convolutional decoder network, considering the capacity of representing different frequency components of an input sample. We conduct the discrete Fourier transform on each channel of the feature map in an intermediate layer of the decoder network. Then, we extend the 2D circular convolution theorem to represent the forward and backward propagations through convolutional layers in the frequency domain. Based on this, we prove three defects in representing feature spectrums. First, we prove that the convolution operation, the zero-padding operation, and a set of other settings all make a convolutional decoder network more likely to weaken high-frequency components. Second, we prove that the upsampling operation generates a feature spectrum, in which strong signals repetitively appear at certain frequencies. Third, we prove that if the frequency components in the input sample and frequency components in the target output for regression have a small shift, then the decoder usually cannot be effectively learned.