Set-membership Belief State-based Reinforcement Learning for POMDPs
Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 202:36856-36867, 2023.
Reinforcement learning (RL) has made significant progress in areas such as Atari games and robotic control, where the agents have perfect sensing capabilities. However, in many real-world sequential decision-making tasks, the observation data could be noisy or incomplete due to the intrinsic low quality of the sensors or unexpected malfunctions; that is, the agent’s perceptions are rarely perfect. The current POMDP RL methods, such as particle-based and Gaussian-based, can only provide a probability estimate of hidden states rather than certain belief regions, which may lead to inefficient and even wrong decision-making. This paper proposes a novel algorithm called Set-membership Belief state-based Reinforcement Learning (SBRL), which consists of two parts: a Set-membership Belief state learning Model (SBM) for learning bounded belief state sets and an RL controller for making decisions based on SBM. We prove that our belief estimation method can provide a series of belief state sets that always contain the true states under the unknown-but-bounded (UBB) noise. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on a collection of benchmark tasks, and the results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.