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# Semantic Strengthening of Neuro-Symbolic Learning

*Proceedings of The 26th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 206:10252-10261, 2023.

#### Abstract

Numerous neuro-symbolic approaches have recently been proposed typically with the goal of adding symbolic knowledge to the output layer of a neural network. Ideally, such losses maximize the probability that the neural network’s predictions satisfy the underlying domain. Unfortunately, this type of probabilistic inference is often computationally infeasible. Neuro-symbolic approaches therefore commonly resort to fuzzy approximations of this probabilistic objective, sacrificing sound probabilistic semantics, or to sampling which is very seldom feasible. We approach the problem by first assuming the constraint decomposes conditioned on the features learned by the network. We iteratively strengthen our approximation, restoring the dependence between the constraints most responsible for degrading the quality of the approximation. This corresponds to computing the mutual information between pairs of constraints conditioned on the network’s learned features, and may be construed as a measure of how well aligned the gradients of two distributions are. We show how to compute this efficiently for tractable circuits. We test our approach on three tasks: predicting a minimum-cost path in Warcraft, predicting a minimum-cost perfect matching, and solving Sudoku puzzles, observing that it improves upon the baselines while sidestepping intractability.