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# An Optimization-based Algorithm for Non-stationary Kernel Bandits without Prior Knowledge

*Proceedings of The 26th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 206:3048-3085, 2023.

#### Abstract

We propose an algorithm for non-stationary kernel bandits that does not require prior knowledge of the degree of non-stationarity. The algorithm follows randomized strategies obtained by solving optimization problems that balance exploration and exploitation. It adapts to non-stationarity by restarting when a change in the reward function is detected. Our algorithm enjoys a tighter dynamic regret bound than previous work on non- stationary kernel bandits. Moreover, when applied to the non-stationary linear bandits by us- ing a linear kernel, our algorithm is nearly minimax optimal, solving an open problem in the non-stationary linear bandit literature. We extend our algorithm to use a neural network for dynamically adapting the feature mapping to observed data. We prove a dynamic regret bound of the extension using the neural tangent kernel theory. We demonstrate empirically that our algorithm and the extension can adapt to varying degrees of non-stationarity.