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# Probabilistic Verification of ReLU Neural Networks via Characteristic Functions

*Proceedings of The 5th Annual Learning for Dynamics and Control Conference*, PMLR 211:966-979, 2023.

#### Abstract

Verifying the input-output relationships of a neural network to achieve desired performance specifications is a difficult, yet important, problem due to the growing ubiquity of neural nets in many engineering applications. We use ideas from probability theory in the frequency domain to provide probabilistic verification guarantees for ReLU neural networks. Specifically, we interpret a (deep) feedforward neural network as a discrete-time dynamical system over a finite horizon that shapes distributions of initial states, and use characteristic functions to propagate the distribution of the input data through the network. Using the inverse Fourier transform, we obtain the corresponding cumulative distribution function of the output set, which we use to check if the network is performing as expected given any random point from the input set. The proposed approach does not require distributions to have well-defined moments or moment generating functions. We demonstrate our proposed approach on two examples, and compare its performance to related approaches.