[edit]

# Learning Choice Functions with Gaussian Processes

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 216:141-151, 2023.

#### Abstract

In consumer theory, ranking available objects by means of preference relations yields the most common description of individual choices. However, preference-based models assume that individuals: (1) give their preferences only between pairs of objects; (2) are always able to pick the best preferred object. In many situations, they may be instead choosing out of a set with more than two elements and, because of lack of information and/or incomparability (objects with contradictory characteristics), they may not be able to select a single most preferred object. To address these situations, we need a choice model which allows an individual to express a set-valued choice. Choice functions provide such a mathematical framework. We propose a Gaussian Process model to learn choice functions from choice data. The model assumes a multiple utility representation of a choice function based on the concept of Pareto rationalization, and derives a strategy to learn both the number and the values of these latent multiple utilities. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.