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# Gibbs Sampling of Continuous Potentials on a Quantum Computer

*Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 235:36322-36371, 2024.

#### Abstract

Gibbs sampling from continuous real-valued functions is a challenging problem of interest in machine learning. Here we leverage quantum Fourier transforms to build a quantum algorithm for this task when the function is periodic. We use the quantum algorithms for solving linear ordinary differential equations to solve the Fokker–Planck equation and prepare a quantum state encoding the Gibbs distribution. We show that the efficiency of interpolation and differentiation of these functions on a quantum computer depends on the rate of decay of the Fourier coefficients of the Fourier transform of the function. We view this property as a concentration of measure in the Fourier domain, and also provide functional analytic conditions for it. Our algorithm makes zeroeth order queries to a quantum oracle of the function and achieves polynomial quantum speedups in mean estimation in the Gibbs measure for generic non-convex periodic functions. At high temperatures the algorithm also allows for exponentially improved precision in sampling from Morse functions.