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# Stochastic Bandits with ReLU Neural Networks

*Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 235:54866-54887, 2024.

#### Abstract

We study the stochastic bandit problem with ReLU neural network structure. We show that a $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{T})$ regret guarantee is achievable by considering bandits with one-layer ReLU neural networks; to the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to achieve such a guarantee. In this specific setting, we propose an OFU-ReLU algorithm that can achieve this upper bound. The algorithm first explores randomly until it reaches a

*linear*regime, and then implements a UCB-type linear bandit algorithm to balance exploration and exploitation. Our key insight is that we can exploit the piecewise linear structure of ReLU activations and convert the problem into a linear bandit in a transformed feature space, once we learn the parameters of ReLU relatively accurately during the exploration stage. To remove dependence on model parameters, we design an OFU-ReLU+ algorithm based on a batching strategy, which can provide the same theoretical guarantee.