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# STEMFold: Stochastic temporal manifold for multi-agent interactions in the presence of hidden agents

*Proceedings of the 6th Annual Learning for Dynamics & Control Conference*, PMLR 242:1427-1439, 2024.

#### Abstract

Learning accurate, data-driven predictive models for multiple interacting agents following unknown dynamics is crucial in many real-world physical and social systems. In many scenarios, dynamics prediction must be performed under incomplete observations, i.e., only a subset of agents are known and observable from a larger topological system while the behaviors of the unobserved agents and their interactions with the observed agents are not known. When only incomplete observations of a dynamical system are available, so that some states remain hidden, it is generally not possible to learn a closed-form model in these variables using either analytic or data-driven techniques. In this work, we propose STEMFold, a spatiotemporal attention-based generative model, to learn a stochastic manifold to predict the underlying unmeasured dynamics of the multi-agent system from observations of only visible agents. Our analytical results motivate STEMFold design using a spatiotemporal graph with time anchors to effectively map the observations of visible agents to a stochastic manifold with no prior information about interaction graph topology. We empirically evaluated our method on two simulations and two real-world datasets, where it outperformed existing networks in predicting complex multiagent interactions, even with many unobserved agents.