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# Piecewise regression via mixed-integer programming for MPC

*Proceedings of the 6th Annual Learning for Dynamics & Control Conference*, PMLR 242:337-348, 2024.

#### Abstract

Piecewise regression is a versatile approach used in various disciplines to approximate complex functions from limited, potentially noisy data points. In control, piecewise regression is, e.g., used to approximate the optimal control law of model predictive control (MPC), the optimal value function, or unknown system dynamics. Neural networks are a common choice to solve the piecewise regression problem. However, due to their nonlinear structure, training is often based on gradient-based methods, which may fail to find a global optimum or even a solution that leads to a small approximation error. To overcome this problem and to find a global optimal solution, methods based on mixed-integer programming (MIP) can be used. However, the known MIP-based methods are either limited to a special class of functions, e.g., convex piecewise affine functions, or they lead to complex approximations in terms of the number of regions of the piecewise defined function. Both complicate a usage in the framework of control. We propose a new MIP-based method that is not restricted to a particular class of piecewise defined functions and leads to functions that are fast to evaluate and can be used within an optimization problem, making them well suited for use in control.