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# Physics-informed machine learning as a kernel method

*Proceedings of Thirty Seventh Conference on Learning Theory*, PMLR 247:1399-1450, 2024.

#### Abstract

Physics-informed machine learning combines the expressiveness of data-based approaches with the interpretability of physical models. In this context, we consider a general regression problem where the empirical risk is regularized by a partial differential equation that quantifies the physical inconsistency. We prove that for linear differential priors, the problem can be formulated as a kernel regression task. Taking advantage of kernel theory, we derive convergence rates for the minimizer $\hat f_n$ of the regularized risk and show that $\hat f_n$ converges at least at the Sobolev minimax rate. However, faster rates can be achieved, depending on the physical error. This principle is illustrated with a one-dimensional example, supporting the claim that regularizing the empirical risk with physical information can be beneficial to the statistical performance of estimators.