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# Universal Value Function Approximators

*Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 37:1312-1320, 2015.

#### Abstract

Value functions are a core component of reinforcement learning. The main idea is to to construct a single function approximator V(s; theta) that estimates the long-term reward from any state s, using parameters θ. In this paper we introduce universal value function approximators (UVFAs) V(s,g;theta) that generalise not just over states s but also over goals g. We develop an efficient technique for supervised learning of UVFAs, by factoring observed values into separate embedding vectors for state and goal, and then learning a mapping from s and g to these factored embedding vectors. We show how this technique may be incorporated into a reinforcement learning algorithm that updates the UVFA solely from observed rewards. Finally, we demonstrate that a UVFA can successfully generalise to previously unseen goals.