Reversible Jump MCMC for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
; Proceedings of the Twelth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 5:663-670, 2009.
We present a fully Bayesian approach to Non-Negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) by developing a Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) method which provides full posteriors over the matrix components. In addition the NMF model selection issue is addressed, for the first time, as our RJMCMC procedure provides the posterior distribution over the matrix dimensions and therefore the number of components in the NMF model. A comparative analysis is provided with the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and model selection employing estimates of the marginal likelihood. An illustrative synthetic example is provided using blind mixtures of images. This is then followed by a large scale study of the recovery of component spectra from multiplexed Raman readouts. The power and flexibility of the Bayesian methodology and the proposed RJMCMC procedure to objectively assess differing model structures and infer the corresponding plausible component spectra for this complex data is demonstrated convincingly.