A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks

Devansh Arpit, Stanisław Jastrzębski, Nicolas Ballas, David Krueger, Emmanuel Bengio, Maxinder S. Kanwal, Tegan Maharaj, Asja Fischer, Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio, Simon Lacoste-Julien
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 70:233-242, 2017.

Abstract

We examine the role of memorization in deep learning, drawing connections to capacity, generalization, and adversarial robustness. While deep networks are capable of memorizing noise data, our results suggest that they tend to prioritize learning simple patterns first. In our experiments, we expose qualitative differences in gradient-based optimization of deep neural networks (DNNs) on noise vs.~real data. We also demonstrate that for appropriately tuned explicit regularization (e.g.,~dropout) we can degrade DNN training performance on noise datasets without compromising generalization on real data. Our analysis suggests that the notions of effective capacity which are dataset independent are unlikely to explain the generalization performance of deep networks when trained with gradient based methods because training data itself plays an important role in determining the degree of memorization.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v70-arpit17a, title = {A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks}, author = {Devansh Arpit and Stanis{\l}aw Jastrz{\k{e}}bski and Nicolas Ballas and David Krueger and Emmanuel Bengio and Maxinder S. Kanwal and Tegan Maharaj and Asja Fischer and Aaron Courville and Yoshua Bengio and Simon Lacoste-Julien}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {233--242}, year = {2017}, editor = {Precup, Doina and Teh, Yee Whye}, volume = {70}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {06--11 Aug}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/arpit17a/arpit17a.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/arpit17a.html }, abstract = {We examine the role of memorization in deep learning, drawing connections to capacity, generalization, and adversarial robustness. While deep networks are capable of memorizing noise data, our results suggest that they tend to prioritize learning simple patterns first. In our experiments, we expose qualitative differences in gradient-based optimization of deep neural networks (DNNs) on noise vs.~real data. We also demonstrate that for appropriately tuned explicit regularization (e.g.,~dropout) we can degrade DNN training performance on noise datasets without compromising generalization on real data. Our analysis suggests that the notions of effective capacity which are dataset independent are unlikely to explain the generalization performance of deep networks when trained with gradient based methods because training data itself plays an important role in determining the degree of memorization.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks %A Devansh Arpit %A Stanisław Jastrzębski %A Nicolas Ballas %A David Krueger %A Emmanuel Bengio %A Maxinder S. Kanwal %A Tegan Maharaj %A Asja Fischer %A Aaron Courville %A Yoshua Bengio %A Simon Lacoste-Julien %B Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2017 %E Doina Precup %E Yee Whye Teh %F pmlr-v70-arpit17a %I PMLR %P 233--242 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/arpit17a.html %V 70 %X We examine the role of memorization in deep learning, drawing connections to capacity, generalization, and adversarial robustness. While deep networks are capable of memorizing noise data, our results suggest that they tend to prioritize learning simple patterns first. In our experiments, we expose qualitative differences in gradient-based optimization of deep neural networks (DNNs) on noise vs.~real data. We also demonstrate that for appropriately tuned explicit regularization (e.g.,~dropout) we can degrade DNN training performance on noise datasets without compromising generalization on real data. Our analysis suggests that the notions of effective capacity which are dataset independent are unlikely to explain the generalization performance of deep networks when trained with gradient based methods because training data itself plays an important role in determining the degree of memorization.
APA
Arpit, D., Jastrzębski, S., Ballas, N., Krueger, D., Bengio, E., Kanwal, M.S., Maharaj, T., Fischer, A., Courville, A., Bengio, Y. & Lacoste-Julien, S.. (2017). A Closer Look at Memorization in Deep Networks. Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 70:233-242 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/arpit17a.html .

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