Recurrent Highway Networks

Julian Georg Zilly, Rupesh Kumar Srivastava, Jan Koutnı́k, Jürgen Schmidhuber
Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 70:4189-4198, 2017.

Abstract

Many sequential processing tasks require complex nonlinear transition functions from one step to the next. However, recurrent neural networks with “deep” transition functions remain difficult to train, even when using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. We introduce a novel theoretical analysis of recurrent networks based on Gersgorin’s circle theorem that illuminates several modeling and optimization issues and improves our understanding of the LSTM cell. Based on this analysis we propose Recurrent Highway Networks, which extend the LSTM architecture to allow step-to-step transition depths larger than one. Several language modeling experiments demonstrate that the proposed architecture results in powerful and efficient models. On the Penn Treebank corpus, solely increasing the transition depth from 1 to 10 improves word-level perplexity from 90.6 to 65.4 using the same number of parameters. On the larger Wikipedia datasets for character prediction (text8 and enwik8), RHNs outperform all previous results and achieve an entropy of 1.27 bits per character.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v70-zilly17a, title = {Recurrent Highway Networks}, author = {Julian Georg Zilly and Rupesh Kumar Srivastava and Jan Koutn\'{\i}k and J{\"u}rgen Schmidhuber}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {4189--4198}, year = {2017}, editor = {Precup, Doina and Teh, Yee Whye}, volume = {70}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {06--11 Aug}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/zilly17a/zilly17a.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/zilly17a.html }, abstract = {Many sequential processing tasks require complex nonlinear transition functions from one step to the next. However, recurrent neural networks with “deep” transition functions remain difficult to train, even when using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. We introduce a novel theoretical analysis of recurrent networks based on Gersgorin’s circle theorem that illuminates several modeling and optimization issues and improves our understanding of the LSTM cell. Based on this analysis we propose Recurrent Highway Networks, which extend the LSTM architecture to allow step-to-step transition depths larger than one. Several language modeling experiments demonstrate that the proposed architecture results in powerful and efficient models. On the Penn Treebank corpus, solely increasing the transition depth from 1 to 10 improves word-level perplexity from 90.6 to 65.4 using the same number of parameters. On the larger Wikipedia datasets for character prediction (text8 and enwik8), RHNs outperform all previous results and achieve an entropy of 1.27 bits per character.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Recurrent Highway Networks %A Julian Georg Zilly %A Rupesh Kumar Srivastava %A Jan Koutnı́k %A Jürgen Schmidhuber %B Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2017 %E Doina Precup %E Yee Whye Teh %F pmlr-v70-zilly17a %I PMLR %P 4189--4198 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/zilly17a.html %V 70 %X Many sequential processing tasks require complex nonlinear transition functions from one step to the next. However, recurrent neural networks with “deep” transition functions remain difficult to train, even when using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. We introduce a novel theoretical analysis of recurrent networks based on Gersgorin’s circle theorem that illuminates several modeling and optimization issues and improves our understanding of the LSTM cell. Based on this analysis we propose Recurrent Highway Networks, which extend the LSTM architecture to allow step-to-step transition depths larger than one. Several language modeling experiments demonstrate that the proposed architecture results in powerful and efficient models. On the Penn Treebank corpus, solely increasing the transition depth from 1 to 10 improves word-level perplexity from 90.6 to 65.4 using the same number of parameters. On the larger Wikipedia datasets for character prediction (text8 and enwik8), RHNs outperform all previous results and achieve an entropy of 1.27 bits per character.
APA
Zilly, J.G., Srivastava, R.K., Koutnı́k, J. & Schmidhuber, J.. (2017). Recurrent Highway Networks. Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 70:4189-4198 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v70/zilly17a.html .

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