Stopping criterion for active learning based on deterministic generalization bounds

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Hideaki Ishibashi, Hideitsu Hino ;
Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 108:386-397, 2020.

Abstract

Active learning is a framework in which the learning machine can select the samples to be used for training. This technique is promising, particularly when the cost of data acquisition and labeling is high. In active learning, determining the timing at which learning should be stopped is a critical issue. In this study, we propose a criterion for automatically stopping active learning. The proposed stopping criterion is based on the difference in the expected generalization errors and hypothesis testing. We derive a novel upper bound for the difference in expected generalization errors before and after obtaining a new training datum based on PAC-Bayesian theory. Unlike ordinary PAC-Bayesian bounds, though, the proposed bound is deterministic; hence, there is no uncontrollable trade-off between the confidence and tightness of the inequality. We combine the upper bound with a statistical test to derive a stopping criterion for active learning. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method via experiments with both artificial and real datasets.

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