Two-sample Testing Using Deep Learning

Matthias Kirchler, Shahryar Khorasani, Marius Kloft, Christoph Lippert
Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 108:1387-1398, 2020.

Abstract

We propose a two-sample testing procedure based on learned deep neural network representations. To this end, we define two test statistics that perform an asymptotic location test on data samples mapped onto a hidden layer. The tests are consistent and asymptotically control the type-1 error rate. Their test statistics can be evaluated in linear time (in the sample size). Suitable data representations are obtained in a data-driven way, by solving a supervised or unsupervised transfer-learning task on an auxiliary (potentially distinct) data set. If no auxiliary data is available, we split the data into two chunks: one for learning representations and one for computing the test statistic. In experiments on audio samples, natural images and three-dimensional neuroimaging data our tests yield significant decreases in type-2 error rate (up to 35 percentage points) compared to state-of-the-art two-sample tests such as kernel-methods and classifier two-sample tests.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v108-kirchler20a, title = {Two-sample Testing Using Deep Learning}, author = {Kirchler, Matthias and Khorasani, Shahryar and Kloft, Marius and Lippert, Christoph}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics}, pages = {1387--1398}, year = {2020}, editor = {Silvia Chiappa and Roberto Calandra}, volume = {108}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {26--28 Aug}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/kirchler20a/kirchler20a.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/kirchler20a.html }, abstract = {We propose a two-sample testing procedure based on learned deep neural network representations. To this end, we define two test statistics that perform an asymptotic location test on data samples mapped onto a hidden layer. The tests are consistent and asymptotically control the type-1 error rate. Their test statistics can be evaluated in linear time (in the sample size). Suitable data representations are obtained in a data-driven way, by solving a supervised or unsupervised transfer-learning task on an auxiliary (potentially distinct) data set. If no auxiliary data is available, we split the data into two chunks: one for learning representations and one for computing the test statistic. In experiments on audio samples, natural images and three-dimensional neuroimaging data our tests yield significant decreases in type-2 error rate (up to 35 percentage points) compared to state-of-the-art two-sample tests such as kernel-methods and classifier two-sample tests.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Two-sample Testing Using Deep Learning %A Matthias Kirchler %A Shahryar Khorasani %A Marius Kloft %A Christoph Lippert %B Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Silvia Chiappa %E Roberto Calandra %F pmlr-v108-kirchler20a %I PMLR %P 1387--1398 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/kirchler20a.html %V 108 %X We propose a two-sample testing procedure based on learned deep neural network representations. To this end, we define two test statistics that perform an asymptotic location test on data samples mapped onto a hidden layer. The tests are consistent and asymptotically control the type-1 error rate. Their test statistics can be evaluated in linear time (in the sample size). Suitable data representations are obtained in a data-driven way, by solving a supervised or unsupervised transfer-learning task on an auxiliary (potentially distinct) data set. If no auxiliary data is available, we split the data into two chunks: one for learning representations and one for computing the test statistic. In experiments on audio samples, natural images and three-dimensional neuroimaging data our tests yield significant decreases in type-2 error rate (up to 35 percentage points) compared to state-of-the-art two-sample tests such as kernel-methods and classifier two-sample tests.
APA
Kirchler, M., Khorasani, S., Kloft, M. & Lippert, C.. (2020). Two-sample Testing Using Deep Learning. Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 108:1387-1398 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/kirchler20a.html .

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