Regularization via Structural Label Smoothing

Weizhi Li, Gautam Dasarathy, Visar Berisha
Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 108:1453-1463, 2020.

Abstract

Regularization is an effective way to promote the generalization performance of machine learning models. In this paper, we focus on label smoothing, a form of output distribution regularization that prevents overfitting of a neural network by softening the ground-truth labels in the training data in an attempt to penalize overconfident outputs. Existing approaches typically use cross-validation to impose this smoothing, which is uniform across all training data. In this paper, we show that such label smoothing imposes a quantifiable bias in the Bayes error rate of the training data, with regions of the feature space with high overlap and low marginal likelihood having a lower bias and regions of low overlap and high marginal likelihood having a higher bias. These theoretical results motivate a simple objective function for data-dependent smoothing to mitigate the potential negative consequences of the operation while maintaining its desirable properties as a regularizer. We call this approach Structural Label Smoothing (SLS). We implement SLS and empirically validate on synthetic, Higgs, SVHN, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 datasets. The results confirm our theoretical insights and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to traditional label smoothing.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v108-li20e, title = {Regularization via Structural Label Smoothing}, author = {Li, Weizhi and Dasarathy, Gautam and Berisha, Visar}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics}, pages = {1453--1463}, year = {2020}, editor = {Silvia Chiappa and Roberto Calandra}, volume = {108}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {26--28 Aug}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/li20e/li20e.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/li20e.html }, abstract = {Regularization is an effective way to promote the generalization performance of machine learning models. In this paper, we focus on label smoothing, a form of output distribution regularization that prevents overfitting of a neural network by softening the ground-truth labels in the training data in an attempt to penalize overconfident outputs. Existing approaches typically use cross-validation to impose this smoothing, which is uniform across all training data. In this paper, we show that such label smoothing imposes a quantifiable bias in the Bayes error rate of the training data, with regions of the feature space with high overlap and low marginal likelihood having a lower bias and regions of low overlap and high marginal likelihood having a higher bias. These theoretical results motivate a simple objective function for data-dependent smoothing to mitigate the potential negative consequences of the operation while maintaining its desirable properties as a regularizer. We call this approach Structural Label Smoothing (SLS). We implement SLS and empirically validate on synthetic, Higgs, SVHN, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 datasets. The results confirm our theoretical insights and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to traditional label smoothing.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Regularization via Structural Label Smoothing %A Weizhi Li %A Gautam Dasarathy %A Visar Berisha %B Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Silvia Chiappa %E Roberto Calandra %F pmlr-v108-li20e %I PMLR %P 1453--1463 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/li20e.html %V 108 %X Regularization is an effective way to promote the generalization performance of machine learning models. In this paper, we focus on label smoothing, a form of output distribution regularization that prevents overfitting of a neural network by softening the ground-truth labels in the training data in an attempt to penalize overconfident outputs. Existing approaches typically use cross-validation to impose this smoothing, which is uniform across all training data. In this paper, we show that such label smoothing imposes a quantifiable bias in the Bayes error rate of the training data, with regions of the feature space with high overlap and low marginal likelihood having a lower bias and regions of low overlap and high marginal likelihood having a higher bias. These theoretical results motivate a simple objective function for data-dependent smoothing to mitigate the potential negative consequences of the operation while maintaining its desirable properties as a regularizer. We call this approach Structural Label Smoothing (SLS). We implement SLS and empirically validate on synthetic, Higgs, SVHN, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100 datasets. The results confirm our theoretical insights and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to traditional label smoothing.
APA
Li, W., Dasarathy, G. & Berisha, V.. (2020). Regularization via Structural Label Smoothing. Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 108:1453-1463 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v108/li20e.html .

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