Scalable Exact Inference in Multi-Output Gaussian Processes

Wessel Bruinsma, Eric Perim, William Tebbutt, Scott Hosking, Arno Solin, Richard Turner
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:1190-1201, 2020.

Abstract

Multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGPs) leverage the flexibility and interpretability of GPs while capturing structure across outputs, which is desirable, for example, in spatio-temporal modelling. The key problem with MOGPs is their computational scaling $O(n^3 p^3)$, which is cubic in the number of both inputs $n$ (e.g., time points or locations) and outputs $p$. For this reason, a popular class of MOGPs assumes that the data live around a low-dimensional linear subspace, reducing the complexity to $O(n^3 m^3)$. However, this cost is still cubic in the dimensionality of the subspace $m$, which is still prohibitively expensive for many applications. We propose the use of a sufficient statistic of the data to accelerate inference and learning in MOGPs with orthogonal bases. The method achieves linear scaling in $m$ in practice, allowing these models to scale to large $m$ without sacrificing significant expressivity or requiring approximation. This advance opens up a wide range of real-world tasks and can be combined with existing GP approximations in a plug-and-play way. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method on various synthetic and real-world data sets.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-bruinsma20a, title = {Scalable Exact Inference in Multi-Output {G}aussian Processes}, author = {Bruinsma, Wessel and Perim, Eric and Tebbutt, William and Hosking, Scott and Solin, Arno and Turner, Richard}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {1190--1201}, year = {2020}, editor = {Hal Daumé III and Aarti Singh}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/bruinsma20a/bruinsma20a.pdf}, url = { http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/bruinsma20a.html }, abstract = {Multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGPs) leverage the flexibility and interpretability of GPs while capturing structure across outputs, which is desirable, for example, in spatio-temporal modelling. The key problem with MOGPs is their computational scaling $O(n^3 p^3)$, which is cubic in the number of both inputs $n$ (e.g., time points or locations) and outputs $p$. For this reason, a popular class of MOGPs assumes that the data live around a low-dimensional linear subspace, reducing the complexity to $O(n^3 m^3)$. However, this cost is still cubic in the dimensionality of the subspace $m$, which is still prohibitively expensive for many applications. We propose the use of a sufficient statistic of the data to accelerate inference and learning in MOGPs with orthogonal bases. The method achieves linear scaling in $m$ in practice, allowing these models to scale to large $m$ without sacrificing significant expressivity or requiring approximation. This advance opens up a wide range of real-world tasks and can be combined with existing GP approximations in a plug-and-play way. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method on various synthetic and real-world data sets.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Scalable Exact Inference in Multi-Output Gaussian Processes %A Wessel Bruinsma %A Eric Perim %A William Tebbutt %A Scott Hosking %A Arno Solin %A Richard Turner %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-bruinsma20a %I PMLR %P 1190--1201 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/bruinsma20a.html %V 119 %X Multi-output Gaussian processes (MOGPs) leverage the flexibility and interpretability of GPs while capturing structure across outputs, which is desirable, for example, in spatio-temporal modelling. The key problem with MOGPs is their computational scaling $O(n^3 p^3)$, which is cubic in the number of both inputs $n$ (e.g., time points or locations) and outputs $p$. For this reason, a popular class of MOGPs assumes that the data live around a low-dimensional linear subspace, reducing the complexity to $O(n^3 m^3)$. However, this cost is still cubic in the dimensionality of the subspace $m$, which is still prohibitively expensive for many applications. We propose the use of a sufficient statistic of the data to accelerate inference and learning in MOGPs with orthogonal bases. The method achieves linear scaling in $m$ in practice, allowing these models to scale to large $m$ without sacrificing significant expressivity or requiring approximation. This advance opens up a wide range of real-world tasks and can be combined with existing GP approximations in a plug-and-play way. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method on various synthetic and real-world data sets.
APA
Bruinsma, W., Perim, E., Tebbutt, W., Hosking, S., Solin, A. & Turner, R.. (2020). Scalable Exact Inference in Multi-Output Gaussian Processes. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:1190-1201 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/bruinsma20a.html .

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