Growing Adaptive Multi-hyperplane Machines
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:2567-2576, 2020.
Adaptive Multi-hyperplane Machine (AMM) is an online algorithm for learning Multi-hyperplane Machine (MM), a classification model which allows multiple hyperplanes per class. AMM is based on Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), with training time comparable to linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) and significantly higher accuracy. On the other hand, empirical results indicate there is a large accuracy gap between AMM and non-linear SVMs. In this paper we show that this performance gap is not due to limited representability of the MM model, as it can represent arbitrary concepts. We set to explain the connection between the AMM and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithms, and introduce a novel Growing AMM (GAMM) classifier motivated by Growing LVQ, that imputes duplicate hyperplanes into the MM model during SGD training. We provide theoretical results showing that GAMM has favorable convergence properties, and analyze the generalization bound of the MM models. Experiments indicate that GAMM achieves significantly improved accuracy on non-linear problems, with only slightly slower training compared to AMM. On some tasks GAMM comes close to non-linear SVM, and outperforms other popular classifiers such as Neural Networks and Random Forests.