Optimal Quantisation of Probability Measures Using Maximum Mean Discrepancy
Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 130:1027-1035, 2021.
Several researchers have proposed minimisation of maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) as a method to quantise probability measures, i.e., to approximate a distribution by a representative point set. We consider sequential algorithms that greedily minimise MMD over a discrete candidate set. We propose a novel non-myopic algorithm and, in order to both improve statistical efficiency and reduce computational cost, we investigate a variant that applies this technique to a mini-batch of the candidate set at each iteration. When the candidate points are sampled from the target, the consistency of these new algorithms—and their mini-batch variants—is established. We demonstrate the algorithms on a range of important computational problems, including optimisation of nodes in Bayesian cubature and the thinning of Markov chain output.