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# Spectral Compressed Sensing via Structured Matrix Completion

*Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 28(3):414-422, 2013.

#### Abstract

The paper studies the problem of recovering a spectrally sparse object from a small number of time domain samples. Specifically, the object of interest with ambient dimension n is assumed to be a mixture of r complex multi-dimensional sinusoids, while the underlying frequencies can assume any value in the unit disk. Conventional compressed sensing paradigms suffer from the \em basis mismatch issue when imposing a discrete dictionary on the Fourier representation. To address this problem, we develop a novel nonparametric algorithm, called enhanced matrix completion (EMaC), based on structured matrix completion. The algorithm starts by converting the data into a low-rank enhanced form with multi-fold Hankel structure, then attempts recovery via nuclear norm minimization. Under mild incoherence conditions, EMaC allows perfect recovery as soon as the number of samples exceeds the order of \mathcalO(r\log^2 n). We also show that, in many instances, accurate completion of a low-rank multi-fold Hankel matrix is possible when the number of observed entries is proportional to the information theoretical limits (except for a logarithmic gap). The robustness of EMaC against bounded noise and its applicability to super resolution are further demonstrated by numerical experiments.