Gaussian Process Classification and Active Learning with Multiple Annotators

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Filipe Rodrigues, Francisco Pereira, Bernardete Ribeiro ;
Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 32(2):433-441, 2014.

Abstract

Learning from multiple annotators took a valuable step towards modelling data that does not fit the usual single annotator setting. However, multiple annotators sometimes offer varying degrees of expertise. When disagreements arise, the establishment of the correct label through trivial solutions such as majority voting may not be adequate, since without considering heterogeneity in the annotators, we risk generating a flawed model. In this paper, we extend GP classification in order to account for multiple annotators with different levels expertise. By explicitly handling uncertainty, Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework to build proper multiple-annotator models. We empirically show that our model significantly outperforms other commonly used approaches, such as majority voting, without a significant increase in the computational cost of approximate Bayesian inference. Furthermore, an active learning methodology is proposed, which is able to reduce annotation cost even further.

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