Sketching, Embedding and Dimensionality Reduction in Information Theoretic Spaces

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Amirali Abdullah, Ravi Kumar, Andrew McGregor, Sergei Vassilvitskii, Suresh Venkatasubramanian ;
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 51:948-956, 2016.

Abstract

In this paper we show how to embed information distances like the χ^2 and Jensen-Shannon divergences efficiently in low dimensional spaces while preserving all pairwise distances. We then prove a dimensionality reduction result for the Hellinger, Jensen–Shannon, and χ^2 divergences that preserves the information geometry of the distributions, specifically, by retaining the simplex structure of the space. While our first result already implies these divergences can be explicitly embedded in the Euclidean space, retaining the simplex structure is important because it allows us to do inferences in the reduced space. We also show that these divergences can be sketched efficiently (i.e., up to a multiplicative error in sublinear space) in the aggregate streaming model. This result is exponentially stronger than known upper bounds for sketching these distances in the strict turnstile streaming model.

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