Deep Spine: Automated Lumbar Vertebral Segmentation, Disc-Level Designation, and Spinal Stenosis Grading using Deep Learning
Proceedings of the 3rd Machine Learning for Healthcare Conference, PMLR 85:403-419, 2018.
The high prevalence of spinal stenosis results in a large volume of MRI imaging, yet interpretation can be time-consuming with high inter-reader variability even among the most specialized radiologists. In this paper, we develop an efficient methodology to leverage the subject-matter-expertise stored in large-scale archival reporting and image data for a deep-learning approach to fully-automated lumbar spinal stenosis grading. Specifically, we introduce three major contributions: (1) a natural-language-processing scheme to extract level-by-level ground-truth labels from free-text radiology reports for the various types and grades of spinal stenosis (2) accurate vertebral segmentation and disc-level localization using a U-Net architecture combined with a spine-curve fitting method, and (3) a multi-input, multi-task, and multi-class convolutional neural network to perform central canal and foraminal stenosis grading on both axial and sagittal imaging series inputs with the extracted report-derived labels applied to corresponding imaging level segments. This study uses a large dataset of 22796 disc-levels extracted from 4075 patients. We achieve state-of-the-art performance on lumbar spinal stenosis classification and expect the technique will increase both radiology workflow efficiency and the perceived value of radiology reports for referring clinicians and patients.