Universal Statistics of Fisher Information in Deep Neural Networks: Mean Field Approach

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Ryo Karakida, Shotaro Akaho, Shun-ichi Amari ;
Proceedings of Machine Learning Research, PMLR 89:1032-1041, 2019.

Abstract

The Fisher information matrix (FIM) is a fundamental quantity to represent the characteristics of a stochastic model, including deep neural networks (DNNs). The present study reveals novel statistics of FIM that are universal among a wide class of DNNs. To this end, we use random weights and large width limits, which enables us to utilize mean field theories. We investigate the asymptotic statistics of the FIM’s eigenvalues and reveal that most of them are close to zero while the maximum eigenvalue takes a huge value. Because the landscape of the parameter space is defined by the FIM, it is locally flat in most dimensions, but strongly distorted in others. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential usage of the derived statistics in learning strategies. First, small eigenvalues that induce flatness can be connected to a norm-based capacity measure of generalization ability. Second, the maximum eigenvalue that induces the distortion enables us to quantitatively estimate an appropriately sized learning rate for gradient methods to converge.

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