Mapping natural-language problems to formal-language solutions using structured neural representations

Kezhen Chen, Qiuyuan Huang, Hamid Palangi, Paul Smolensky, Ken Forbus, Jianfeng Gao
Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 119:1566-1575, 2020.

Abstract

Generating formal-language programs represented by relational tuples, such as Lisp programs or mathematical operations, to solve problems stated in natural language is a challenging task because it requires explicitly capturing discrete symbolic structural information implicit in the input. However, most general neural sequence models do not explicitly capture such structural information, limiting their performance on these tasks. In this paper, we propose a new encoder-decoder model based on a structured neural representation, Tensor Product Representations (TPRs), for mapping Natural-language problems to Formal-language solutions, called TP-N2F. The encoder of TP-N2F employs TPR ‘binding’ to encode natural-language symbolic structure in vector space and the decoder uses TPR ‘unbinding’ to generate, in symbolic space, a sequential program represented by relational tuples, each consisting of a relation (or operation) and a number of arguments. TP-N2F considerably outperforms LSTM-based seq2seq models on two benchmarks and creates new state-of-the-art results. Ablation studies show that improvements can be attributed to the use of structured TPRs explicitly in both the encoder and decoder. Analysis of the learned structures shows how TPRs enhance the interpretability of TP-N2F.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v119-chen20g, title = {Mapping natural-language problems to formal-language solutions using structured neural representations}, author = {Chen, Kezhen and Huang, Qiuyuan and Palangi, Hamid and Smolensky, Paul and Forbus, Ken and Gao, Jianfeng}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning}, pages = {1566--1575}, year = {2020}, editor = {III, Hal Daumé and Singh, Aarti}, volume = {119}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--18 Jul}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20g/chen20g.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20g.html}, abstract = {Generating formal-language programs represented by relational tuples, such as Lisp programs or mathematical operations, to solve problems stated in natural language is a challenging task because it requires explicitly capturing discrete symbolic structural information implicit in the input. However, most general neural sequence models do not explicitly capture such structural information, limiting their performance on these tasks. In this paper, we propose a new encoder-decoder model based on a structured neural representation, Tensor Product Representations (TPRs), for mapping Natural-language problems to Formal-language solutions, called TP-N2F. The encoder of TP-N2F employs TPR ‘binding’ to encode natural-language symbolic structure in vector space and the decoder uses TPR ‘unbinding’ to generate, in symbolic space, a sequential program represented by relational tuples, each consisting of a relation (or operation) and a number of arguments. TP-N2F considerably outperforms LSTM-based seq2seq models on two benchmarks and creates new state-of-the-art results. Ablation studies show that improvements can be attributed to the use of structured TPRs explicitly in both the encoder and decoder. Analysis of the learned structures shows how TPRs enhance the interpretability of TP-N2F.} }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Mapping natural-language problems to formal-language solutions using structured neural representations %A Kezhen Chen %A Qiuyuan Huang %A Hamid Palangi %A Paul Smolensky %A Ken Forbus %A Jianfeng Gao %B Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2020 %E Hal Daumé III %E Aarti Singh %F pmlr-v119-chen20g %I PMLR %P 1566--1575 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20g.html %V 119 %X Generating formal-language programs represented by relational tuples, such as Lisp programs or mathematical operations, to solve problems stated in natural language is a challenging task because it requires explicitly capturing discrete symbolic structural information implicit in the input. However, most general neural sequence models do not explicitly capture such structural information, limiting their performance on these tasks. In this paper, we propose a new encoder-decoder model based on a structured neural representation, Tensor Product Representations (TPRs), for mapping Natural-language problems to Formal-language solutions, called TP-N2F. The encoder of TP-N2F employs TPR ‘binding’ to encode natural-language symbolic structure in vector space and the decoder uses TPR ‘unbinding’ to generate, in symbolic space, a sequential program represented by relational tuples, each consisting of a relation (or operation) and a number of arguments. TP-N2F considerably outperforms LSTM-based seq2seq models on two benchmarks and creates new state-of-the-art results. Ablation studies show that improvements can be attributed to the use of structured TPRs explicitly in both the encoder and decoder. Analysis of the learned structures shows how TPRs enhance the interpretability of TP-N2F.
APA
Chen, K., Huang, Q., Palangi, H., Smolensky, P., Forbus, K. & Gao, J.. (2020). Mapping natural-language problems to formal-language solutions using structured neural representations. Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 119:1566-1575 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v119/chen20g.html.

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