Improving Adversarial Robustness via Unlabeled Out-of-Domain Data
Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 130:2845-2853, 2021.
Data augmentation by incorporating cheap unlabeled data from multiple domains is a powerful way to improve prediction especially when there is limited labeled data. In this work, we investigate how adversarial robustness can be enhanced by leveraging out-of-domain unlabeled data. We demonstrate that for broad classes of distributions and classifiers, there exists a sample complexity gap between standard and robust classification. We quantify the extent to which this gap can be bridged by leveraging unlabeled samples from a shifted domain by providing both upper and lower bounds. Moreover, we show settings where we achieve better adversarial robustness when the unlabeled data come from a shifted domain rather than the same domain as the labeled data. We also investigate how to leverage out-of-domain data when some structural information, such as sparsity, is shared between labeled and unlabeled domains. Experimentally, we augment object recognition datasets (CIFAR-10, CINIC-10, and SVHN) with easy-to-obtain and unlabeled out-of-domain data and demonstrate substantial improvement in the model’s robustness against $\ell_\infty$ adversarial attacks on the original domain.