Faster Kernel Interpolation for Gaussian Processes

Mohit Yadav, Daniel Sheldon, Cameron Musco
Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 130:2971-2979, 2021.

Abstract

A key challenge in scaling Gaussian Process (GP) regression to massive datasets is that exact inference requires computation with a dense n × n kernel matrix, where n is the number of data points. Significant work focuses on approximating the kernel matrix via interpolation using a smaller set of m “inducing points”. Structured kernel interpolation (SKI) is among the most scalable methods: by placing inducing points on a dense grid and using structured matrix algebra, SKI achieves per-iteration time of O(n + m log m) for approximate inference. This linear scaling in n enables approximate inference for very large data sets; however, the cost is per-iteration, which remains a limitation for extremely large n. We show that the SKI per-iteration time can be reduced to O(m log m) after a single O(n) time precomputation step by reframing SKI as solving a natural Bayesian linear regression problem with a fixed set of m compact basis functions. For a fixed grid, our new method scales to truly massive data sets: after the initial linear time pass, all subsequent computations are independent of n. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and for all the main GP inference tasks. With per-iteration complexity independent of the dataset size n for a fixed grid, our method scales to truly massive data sets. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and apply the method to GP inference on a three-dimensional weather radar dataset with over 100 million points.

Cite this Paper


BibTeX
@InProceedings{pmlr-v130-yadav21a, title = { Faster Kernel Interpolation for Gaussian Processes }, author = {Yadav, Mohit and Sheldon, Daniel and Musco, Cameron}, booktitle = {Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics}, pages = {2971--2979}, year = {2021}, editor = {Banerjee, Arindam and Fukumizu, Kenji}, volume = {130}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning Research}, month = {13--15 Apr}, publisher = {PMLR}, pdf = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v130/yadav21a/yadav21a.pdf}, url = {http://proceedings.mlr.press/v130/yadav21a.html}, abstract = { A key challenge in scaling Gaussian Process (GP) regression to massive datasets is that exact inference requires computation with a dense n × n kernel matrix, where n is the number of data points. Significant work focuses on approximating the kernel matrix via interpolation using a smaller set of m “inducing points”. Structured kernel interpolation (SKI) is among the most scalable methods: by placing inducing points on a dense grid and using structured matrix algebra, SKI achieves per-iteration time of O(n + m log m) for approximate inference. This linear scaling in n enables approximate inference for very large data sets; however, the cost is per-iteration, which remains a limitation for extremely large n. We show that the SKI per-iteration time can be reduced to O(m log m) after a single O(n) time precomputation step by reframing SKI as solving a natural Bayesian linear regression problem with a fixed set of m compact basis functions. For a fixed grid, our new method scales to truly massive data sets: after the initial linear time pass, all subsequent computations are independent of n. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and for all the main GP inference tasks. With per-iteration complexity independent of the dataset size n for a fixed grid, our method scales to truly massive data sets. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and apply the method to GP inference on a three-dimensional weather radar dataset with over 100 million points. } }
Endnote
%0 Conference Paper %T Faster Kernel Interpolation for Gaussian Processes %A Mohit Yadav %A Daniel Sheldon %A Cameron Musco %B Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics %C Proceedings of Machine Learning Research %D 2021 %E Arindam Banerjee %E Kenji Fukumizu %F pmlr-v130-yadav21a %I PMLR %P 2971--2979 %U http://proceedings.mlr.press/v130/yadav21a.html %V 130 %X A key challenge in scaling Gaussian Process (GP) regression to massive datasets is that exact inference requires computation with a dense n × n kernel matrix, where n is the number of data points. Significant work focuses on approximating the kernel matrix via interpolation using a smaller set of m “inducing points”. Structured kernel interpolation (SKI) is among the most scalable methods: by placing inducing points on a dense grid and using structured matrix algebra, SKI achieves per-iteration time of O(n + m log m) for approximate inference. This linear scaling in n enables approximate inference for very large data sets; however, the cost is per-iteration, which remains a limitation for extremely large n. We show that the SKI per-iteration time can be reduced to O(m log m) after a single O(n) time precomputation step by reframing SKI as solving a natural Bayesian linear regression problem with a fixed set of m compact basis functions. For a fixed grid, our new method scales to truly massive data sets: after the initial linear time pass, all subsequent computations are independent of n. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and for all the main GP inference tasks. With per-iteration complexity independent of the dataset size n for a fixed grid, our method scales to truly massive data sets. We demonstrate speedups in practice for a wide range of m and n and apply the method to GP inference on a three-dimensional weather radar dataset with over 100 million points.
APA
Yadav, M., Sheldon, D. & Musco, C.. (2021). Faster Kernel Interpolation for Gaussian Processes . Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 130:2971-2979 Available from http://proceedings.mlr.press/v130/yadav21a.html.

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