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# Towards understanding how momentum improves generalization in deep learning

*Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 162:9965-10040, 2022.

#### Abstract

Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with momentum is widely used for training modern deep learning architectures. While it is well-understood that using momentum can lead to faster convergence rate in various settings, it has also been observed that momentum yields higher generalization. Prior work argue that momentum stabilizes the SGD noise during training and this leads to higher generalization. In this paper, we adopt another perspective and first empirically show that gradient descent with momentum (GD+M) significantly improves generalization compared to gradient descent (GD) in some deep learning problems. From this observation, we formally study how momentum improves generalization. We devise a binary classification setting where a one-hidden layer (over-parameterized) convolutional neural network trained with GD+M provably generalizes better than the same network trained with GD, when both algorithms are similarly initialized. The key insight in our analysis is that momentum is beneficial in datasets where the examples share some feature but differ in their margin. Contrary to GD that memorizes the small margin data, GD+M still learns the feature in these data thanks to its historical gradients. Lastly, we empirically validate our theoretical findings.