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# Quantum Channel Certification with Incoherent Measurements

*Proceedings of Thirty Sixth Conference on Learning Theory*, PMLR 195:1822-1884, 2023.

#### Abstract

In the problem of quantum channel certification, we have black box access to a quantum process and would like to decide if this process matches some predefined specification or is $\eps$-far from this specification. The objective is to achieve this task while minimizing the number of times the black box is used. Note that the state certification problem is a special case where the black box has no input. Here, we focus on two relevant extreme cases. The first one is when the predefined specification is a unitary channel, e.g., a gate in a quantum circuit. In this case, we show that testing whether the black box is described by a fixed unitary or $\eps$-far from it in the trace norm requires $\Theta(d/\eps^2)$ uses of the black box. The second setting we consider is when the predefined specification is a completely depolarizing channels with input dimension $\din$ and output dimension $\dout$. In this case, we prove that, in the non-adaptive setting, $\Tilde{\Theta}(\din^2\dout^{1.5}/\eps^2)$ uses of the channel are necessary and sufficient to verify whether it is equal to the depolarizing channel or $\eps$-far from it in the diamond norm. Finally, we prove a lower bound of $\Omega(\din^2\dout/\eps^2)$ for this problem in the adaptive setting. Note that the special case $\din = 1$ corresponds to the well-studied quantum identity testing problem.