Test Sample Accuracy Scales with Training Sample Density in Neural Networks
Proceedings of The 1st Conference on Lifelong Learning Agents, PMLR 199:629-646, 2022.
Intuitively, one would expect accuracy of a trained neural network’s prediction on test samples to correlate with how densely the samples are surrounded by seen training samples in representation space. We find that a bound on empirical training error smoothed across linear activation regions scales inversely with training sample density in representation space. Empirically, we verify this bound is a strong predictor of the inaccuracy of the network’s prediction on test samples. For unseen test sets, including those with out-of-distribution samples, ranking test samples by their local region’s error bound and discarding samples with the highest bounds raises prediction accuracy by up to 20% in absolute terms for image classification datasets, on average over thresholds.