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# Q-Flow: Generative Modeling for Differential Equations of Open Quantum Dynamics with Normalizing Flows

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:8879-8901, 2023.

#### Abstract

Studying the dynamics of open quantum systems can enable breakthroughs both in fundamental physics and applications to quantum engineering and quantum computation. Since the density matrix $\rho$, which is the fundamental description for the dynamics of such systems, is high-dimensional, customized deep generative neural networks have been instrumental in modeling $\rho$. However, the complex-valued nature and normalization constraints of $\rho$, as well as its complicated dynamics, prohibit a seamless connection between open quantum systems and the recent advances in deep generative modeling. Here we lift that limitation by utilizing a reformulation of open quantum system dynamics to a partial differential equation (PDE) for a corresponding probability distribution $Q$, the Husimi Q function. Thus, we model the Q function seamlessly with

*off-the-shelf*deep generative models such as normalizing flows. Additionally, we develop novel methods for learning normalizing flow evolution governed by high-dimensional PDEs based on the Euler method and the application of the time-dependent variational principle. We name the resulting approach*Q-Flow*and demonstrate the scalability and efficiency of Q-Flow on open quantum system simulations, including the dissipative harmonic oscillator and the dissipative bosonic model. Q-Flow is superior to conventional PDE solvers and state-of-the-art physics-informed neural network solvers, especially in high-dimensional systems.