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# Omnipredictors for Constrained Optimization

*Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning*, PMLR 202:13497-13527, 2023.

#### Abstract

The notion of omnipredictors (Gopalan, Kalai, Reingold, Sharan and Wieder ITCS 2022), suggested a new paradigm for loss minimization. Rather than learning a predictor based on a known loss function, omnipredictors can easily be post-processed to minimize any one of a rich family of loss functions compared with the loss of hypotheses in a class $\mathcal C$. It has been shown that such omnipredictors exist and are implied (for all convex and Lipschitz loss functions) by the notion of multicalibration from the algorithmic fairness literature. In this paper, we introduce omnipredictors for constrained optimization and study their complexity and implications. The notion that we introduce allows the learner to be unaware of the loss function that will be later assigned

*as well as the constraints that will be later imposed*, as long as the subpopulations that are used to define these constraints are known. We show how to obtain omnipredictors for constrained optimization problems, relying on appropriate variants of multicalibration. We also investigate the implications of this notion when the constraints used are so-called group fairness notions.