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# Mixed Linear Regression via Approximate Message Passing

*Proceedings of The 26th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 206:2116-2131, 2023.

#### Abstract

In mixed linear regression, each observation comes from one of L regression vectors (signals), but we do not know which one. The goal is to estimate the signals from the unlabeled observations. We propose a novel approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm for estimation and rigorously characterize its performance in the high-dimensional limit. This characterization is in terms of a state evolution recursion, which allows us to precisely compute performance measures such as the asymptotic mean-squared error. This can be used to tailor the AMP algorithm to take advantage of any known structural information about the signals. Using state evolution, we derive an optimal choice of AMP ‘denoising’ functions that minimizes the estimation error in each iteration. Numerical simulations are provided to validate the theoretical results, and show that AMP significantly outperforms other estimators including spectral methods, expectation maximization, and alternating minimization. Though our numerical results focus on mixed linear regression, the proposed AMP algorithm can be applied to a broader class of models including mixtures of generalized linear models and max-affine regression.