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# Deep Gaussian mixture ensembles

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 216:549-559, 2023.

#### Abstract

This work introduces a novel probabilistic deep learning technique called deep Gaussian mixture ensembles (DGMEs), which enables accurate quantification of both epistemic and aleatoric uncertainty. By assuming the data generating process follows that of a Gaussian mixture, DGMEs are capable of approximating complex probability distributions, such as heavy-tailed or multimodal distributions. Our contributions include the derivation of an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm used for learning the model parameters, which results in an upper-bound on the log-likelihood of training data over that of standard deep ensembles. Additionally, the proposed EM training procedure allows for learning of mixture weights, which is not commonly done in ensembles. Our experimental results demonstrate that DGMEs outperform state-of-the-art uncertainty quantifying deep learning models in handling complex predictive densities.