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# Loosely consistent emphatic temporal-difference learning

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 216:849-859, 2023.

#### Abstract

There has been significant interest in searching for off-policy Temporal-Difference (TD) algorithms that find the same solution that would have been obtained in the on-policy regime. An important property of such algorithms is that their expected update has the same fixed point as that of On-policy TD($\lambda$), which we call

*loose consistency*. Notably, Full-IS-TD($\lambda$) is the only existing loosely consistent method under general linear function approximation but, unfortunately, has a high variance and is scarcely practical. This notorious high variance issue motivates the introduction of ETD($\lambda$), which tames down the variance but has a biased fixed point. Inspired by these two methods, we propose a new loosely consistent algorithm called*Average Emphatic TD*(AETD($\lambda$)) with a transient bias, which strikes a balance between bias and variance. Further, we unify AETD($\lambda$) with existing methods and obtain a new family of loosely consistent algorithms called*Loosely Consistent Emphatic TD*(LC-ETD($\lambda$, $\beta$, $\nu$)), which can control a smooth bias-variance trade-off by varying the speed at which the transient bias fades. Through experiments on illustrative examples, we show the effectiveness and practicality of LC-ETD($\lambda$, $\beta$, $\nu$).