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# Exploiting Inferential Structure in Neural Processes

*Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence*, PMLR 216:2089-2098, 2023.

#### Abstract

Neural Processes (NPs) are appealing due to their ability to perform fast adaptation based on a context set. This set is encoded by a latent variable, which is often assumed to follow a simple distribution. However, in real-word settings, the context set may be drawn from richer distributions having multiple modes, heavy tails, etc. In this work, we provide a framework that allows NPs’ latent variable to be given a rich prior defined by a graphical model. These distributional assumptions directly translate into an appropriate aggregation strategy for the context set. Moreover, we describe a message-passing procedure that still allows for end-to-end optimization with stochastic gradients. We demonstrate the generality of our framework by using mixture and Student-t assumptions that yield improvements in function modelling and test-time robustness.