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# GRIL: A $2$-parameter Persistence Based Vectorization for Machine Learning

*Proceedings of 2nd Annual Workshop on Topology, Algebra, and Geometry in Machine Learning (TAG-ML)*, PMLR 221:313-333, 2023.

#### Abstract

$1$-parameter persistent homology, a cornerstone in Topological Data Analysis (TDA), studies the evolution of topological features such as connected components and cycles hidden in data. It has been applied to enhance the representation power of deep learning models, such as Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). To enrich the representations of topological features, here we propose to study $2$-parameter persistence modules induced by bi-filtration functions. In order to incorporate these representations into machine learning models, we introduce a novel vector representation called Generalized Rank Invariant Landscape (GRIL) for $2$-parameter persistence modules. We show that this vector representation is $1$-Lipschitz stable and differentiable with respect to underlying filtration functions and can be easily integrated into machine learning models to augment encoding topological features. We present an algorithm to compute the vector representation efficiently. We also test our methods on synthetic and benchmark graph datasets, and compare the results with previous vector representations of $1$-parameter and $2$-parameter persistence modules. Further, we augment GNNs with GRIL features and observe an increase in performance indicating that GRIL can capture additional features enriching GNNs. We make the complete code for the proposed method available at [https://github.com/soham0209/mpml-graph](https://github.com/soham0209/mpml-graph).