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# Online Structured Prediction with Fenchel–Young Losses and Improved Surrogate Regret for Online Multiclass Classification with Logistic Loss

*Proceedings of Thirty Seventh Conference on Learning Theory*, PMLR 247:4458-4486, 2024.

#### Abstract

This paper studies online structured prediction with full-information feedback. For online multiclass classification, Van der Hoeven (2020) established \emph{finite} surrogate regret bounds, which are independent of the time horizon, by introducing an elegant \emph{exploit-the-surrogate-gap} framework. However, this framework has been limited to multiclass classification primarily because it relies on a classification-specific procedure for converting estimated scores to outputs. We extend the exploit-the-surrogate-gap framework to online structured prediction with \emph{Fenchel–Young losses}, a large family of surrogate losses that includes the logistic loss for multiclass classification as a special case, obtaining finite surrogate regret bounds in various structured prediction problems. To this end, we propose and analyze \emph{randomized decoding}, which converts estimated scores to general structured outputs. Moreover, by applying our decoding to online multiclass classification with the logistic loss, we obtain a surrogate regret bound of $O(\| \bm{U} \|_\mathrm{F}^2)$, where $\bm{U}$ is the best offline linear estimator and $\| \cdot \|_\mathrm{F}$ denotes the Frobenius norm. This bound is tight up to logarithmic factors and improves the previous bound of $O(d\| \bm{U} \|_\mathrm{F}^2)$ due to Van der Hoeven (2020) by a factor of $d$, the number of classes.