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# On Riemannian Stochastic Approximation Schemes with Fixed Step-Size

*Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 130:1018-1026, 2021.

#### Abstract

This paper studies fixed step-size stochastic approximation (SA) schemes, including stochastic gradient schemes, in a Riemannian framework. It is motivated by several applications, where geodesics can be computed explicitly, and their use accelerates crude Euclidean methods. A fixed step-size scheme defines a family of time-homogeneous Markov chains, parametrized by the step-size. Here, using this formulation, non-asymptotic performance bounds are derived, under Lyapunov conditions. Then, for any step-size, the corresponding Markov chain is proved to admit a unique stationary distribution, and to be geometrically ergodic. This result gives rise to a family of stationary distributions indexed by the step-size, which is further shown to converge to a Dirac measure, concentrated at the solution of the problem at hand, as the step-size goes to $0$. Finally, the asymptotic rate of this convergence is established, through an asymptotic expansion of the bias, and a central limit theorem.