Streaming Kernel Principal Component Analysis
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 51:1365-1374, 2016.
Kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) provides a concise set of basis vectors which capture non-linear structures within large data sets, and is a central tool in data analysis and learning. To allow for non-linear relations, typically a full n x n kernel matrix is constructed over n data points, but this requires too much space and time for large values of n. Techniques such as the Nystrom method and random feature maps can help towards this goal, but they do not explicitly maintain the basis vectors in a stream and take more space than desired. We propose a new approach for streaming KPCA which maintains a small set of basis elements in a stream, requiring space only logarithmic in n, and also improves the dependence on the error parameter. Our technique combines together random feature maps with recent advances in matrix sketching, it has guaranteed spectral norm error bounds with respect to the original kernel matrix, and it compares favorably in practice to state-of-the-art approaches.