Dynamical Isometry and a Mean Field Theory of RNNs: Gating Enables Signal Propagation in Recurrent Neural Networks

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Minmin Chen, Jeffrey Pennington, Samuel Schoenholz ;
Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Machine Learning, PMLR 80:873-882, 2018.

Abstract

Recurrent neural networks have gained widespread use in modeling sequence data across various domains. While many successful recurrent architectures employ a notion of gating, the exact mechanism that enables such remarkable performance is not well understood. We develop a theory for signal propagation in recurrent networks after random initialization using a combination of mean field theory and random matrix theory. To simplify our discussion, we introduce a new RNN cell with a simple gating mechanism that we call the minimalRNN and compare it with vanilla RNNs. Our theory allows us to define a maximum timescale over which RNNs can remember an input. We show that this theory predicts trainability for both recurrent architectures. We show that gated recurrent networks feature a much broader, more robust, trainable region than vanilla RNNs, which corroborates recent experimental findings. Finally, we develop a closed-form critical initialization scheme that achieves dynamical isometry in both vanilla RNNs and minimalRNNs. We show that this results in significantly improved training dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that the minimalRNN achieves comparable performance to its more complex counterparts, such as LSTMs or GRUs, on a language modeling task.

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